Removal efficiency
Removal efficiency is defined as the fraction of NP mass that is removed by the activated sludge process or, the fraction of NP mass that will remain in the digested sludge. It can be described by the following equation:
Where R
Occurs in 

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Visit the NanoFASE Library to read summaries: NanoFASE Report D5.3 Report on the behaviour of ENM in reactors 
R. Kaegi, A. Voegelin, B. Sinnet, S. Zuleeg, H. Hagendorfer, M. Burkhardt and H. Siegrist (2011) Behavior of Metallic Silver Nanoparticles in a Pilot Wastewater Treatment Plant, Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 39023908. doi: 10.1021/es1041892 
Contact
Ralf Kägi
EAWAG, Switzerland