Environmental Fate of ENMs: Biota Compartment

Biota are the final environmental receptors of ENMs that are released into the environment. As such they are considered by NanoFASE to be a compartment.

Different species may accumulate EMNs from soil, water and/or sediment. Furthermore, biota may act as a reactor by transforming the properties of the EMNs during their residence in the organisms, or by altering the environment by their activities (e.g bioturbation), or by excretion or bio-elimination of e.g. biomolecules (as in the case of plants).

Assessment of accumulation of ENMs in biota is essential for thorough assessment and management of risks that ENMs may pose to the environment.

http://nanofase.eu/show/element_271http://nanofase.eu/show/element_272http://nanofase.eu/show/element_271http://nanofase.eu/show/element_272  1. Bio-uptake

  2. Biogenic transformation

  3. Growth dilution

  4. Bio-elimination

  5. Bioturbation



Case studies

Read also


Visit the Case Studies landing page to access these pages:

  • Ag-NPs in worms
  • Ag-NPs in isopods
  • Ag-NPs in plants
  • ENMs in mesocosms



Ardestani et al. 2014. Uptake and elimination kinetics of metals in soil invertebrates: a review. Environ. Poll 193, 277-295.
Baalousha et al. 2016. Modeling nanomaterial fate and uptake in the environment: current knowledge and future trends. Environ Sci Nano 3, 323-345.

Baccaro et al. 2018. Ageing, dissolution and biogenic formation of nanoparticles: how do these factors affect the uptake kinetics of silver nanoparticles in earthworms? Environmental Science: Nano. DOI:10.1039/c7en01212h.

Cornelis, G. et al. 2014. Fate and Bioavailability of Engineered Nanoparticles in Soils: A Review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol. 44: 2720–2764.

van den Brink NW et al. 2019. Tools and rules for modelling uptake and bioaccumulation of nanomaterials in invertebrate organisms. Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2019, Advance article. DOI: 10.1039/C8EN01122B 



  Nico van den Brink

  Wageningen University