Functional Fate Groups: Environmentally-transformed ENMs

NanoFASE Functional Fate groupings describe the transformed version of the NM following incubation in the specific environmental compartment, whilst also reflecting the initial NM core chemistry and whether any coating / capping / stabilizer has been retained or lost.  

Where data are available, the groupings also include details of any acquired biomolecule corona, change in surface speciation, etc.

Some transformations that can occur in the environment.  
Adapted from:

Occurs in






Managed waste streams

Characterisation of Functional Fate Group (FFG) form

Images: Sulfidation of silver ENMs as determined using HR-TEM. Characterisation of Functional Fate Group (FFG) form, NanoFASE biota-transformed Cu(OH)2 ENMs.

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Gogos A, Thalmann B, Voegelin A, Kaegi. Sulfidation kinetics of copper oxide nanoparticles. Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2017,4, 1733-1741.

NanoFASE paper on FFGs in preparation (see the NanoFASE White Paper, Summer 2019).

Valsami-Jones E, Lynch I (2015) How safe are nanomaterials? Science  23 Oct 2015: Vol. 350, Issue 6259, pp. 388-389. DOI: 10.1126/science.aad0768

Mitrano DM, Motellier S, Clavaguera S, Nowack B (2015) Review of nanomaterial aging and transformations through the life cycle of nano-enhanced products. Environment International, 77, April 2014, pp 132-147.

Briffa SM, Lynch I, Hapiuk D, Valsami-Jones E. (2019) Physical and chemical transformations of zirconium doped ceria nanoparticles in the presence of phosphate: Increasing realism in environmental fate and behaviour experiments. Environmental Pollution, 2019, 252, 974-981.  



Iseult Lynch

University of Birmingham