Emission of pristine ENMs

Pristine ENMs are usually only emitted to various environmental compartments (air, soil, water) or technical compartments (waste water treatment system) during the synthesis or processing phase. Note that industrial facilities take the potential for emission into account and the industrial process is designed to reduce or avoid controlled emissions. After the synthesis or processing stage ENMs are embedded in a matrix or product, from which they are rarely emitted in their pristine state.

Typical sources for potential emission of pristine ENMs are:

  • ENM synthesis site
  • Manufacturing site processing or handling ENMs
  • Cosmetics producer
  • Textile producer
  • Paint producer
  • Etc.

Accidental release could also be an exceptional source of emissions of pristine ENMs, e.g. during transport of materials for processing.

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  Carmen Nickel

  Institut für Energie- und Umwelttechnik (IUTA)




  Christof Asbach

  Institut für Energie- und Umwelttechnik (IUTA)

  Email: asbach@iuta.de