Heteroaggregation is an aggregation process between particles of different types (chemistry, size, shape, surface properties). One example is the heteroaggregation between ENPs and suspended particulate matter (SPM) such as inorganic colloids or/and natural organic matter in aquatic systems or in soils. Heteroaggregation can also occur in air between ENPs and aerosols. Upon collision, particles stick together with a probability expressed by an attachment efficiency (\(\alpha\)) and they form heteroaggregates. In the environment, heteroaggregation is expected to be more frequent than homoaggregation and to occur in soils, freshwaters and air.




Occurs in





Fate descriptors





Attachment efficiency

Heteroaggregation rate calculation

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Deliverable 7.2 Soil property-NM fate relationships and geographical distribution of possible NM transport distances in Europe

Deliverable 8.1 Alignment between Model Requirements and Experimental Procedures

Deliverable 8.2 Report on Driving Forces on NM Behaviour in Natural Waters for Agglomeration and Transformation

Deliverable 8.6 Description of model framework for agglomeration and removal of NMs

Helene Walch et al. (2018) Tackling nanoparticle fate assessment in surface waters  – Heteroaggregation as a key process. SETAC presentation.

Clavier, A., Praetorius, A., Stoll, S., 2019, Determination of nanoparticle heteroaggregation attachment efficiencies and rates in presence of natural organic matter monomers. Monte Carlo modelling: Science of the Total Environment, v. 650, p. 530-540.

M Seijo, S Ulrich, M Filella, J Buffle, S Stoll, 2009. Modeling the adsorption and coagulation of fulvic acids on colloids by brownian dynamics simulations. Environ. Sci. Technol 43 (19), 7265-7269.



Serge Stoll

Group of Environmental Physico

Chemistry, University of Geneva


Marianne Seijo

Group of Environmental Physico

Chemistry, University of Geneva