Attachment rate

The attachment rate determines to a great extent the transport distances of ENMs in porous media such as soils or sediments.

Used for

\(\large \frac{\delta S}{\delta t}=\frac{\theta}{\rho}k_{att}C-k_{det}S\)

Soil transport calculation





\(\LARGE \eta _{0}=\frac{I}{\pi a_{c}^{2}UC_{0}}\)

Attachment rate calculation

Kinetic batch tests

Saturated column test


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Read also




Dale A L, et al. (2016) Much ado about α: reframing the debate over appropriate fate descriptors in nanoparticle environmental risk modeling. Environmental Science: Nano. 2: 27-32.




Karin Norrfors

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)